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Guide To Management Training Programs: Definition, Benefits and Common Topics

What are management training programs?

Management training programs teach people in management positions (e.g., leaders, supervisors, executives) the management skills that separate the best managers from their peers. For example, in one study on leadership skills, it was discovered that:

  • Only 26% of managers/leaders have mastered developing middle performers into high performers
  • Only 31% of managers/leaders are highly proficient at managing difficult personalities 
  • Only 33% of managers/leaders are highly skilled at managing remote employees
  • Only 43% of managers/leaders are adept at delivering constructive feedback that changes behavior

But following a 6-week management training program, participants achieved far better results on all of those measures. Management training courses have historically taken the form of intense multi-day in-person seminars. But amidst a global pandemic, many organizations have discovered that a more spaced curriculum delivered online can deliver even better results. In fact, the most common type of corporate training program is currently a multi-week online training curriculum.

For example, the management training course, The Science And Practices Of Managing People, delivers a 6-week curriculum. Across each of the weeks of this leadership program, managers learn the following skills:

  • WEEK 1. THE SCIENCE OF GIVING CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK
  • WEEK 2. THE SCIENCE OF MANAGING DIFFICULT PERSONALITIES
  • WEEK 3. THE SCIENCE OF RESOLVING CONFLICT
  • WEEK 4. THE SCIENCE OF KEEPING HIGH PERFORMERS EXCITED AND ENGAGED
  • WEEK 5. THE SCIENCE OF MAXIMIZING MIDDLE PERFORMERS
  • WEEK 6. THE SCIENCE OF LEADING TEAMS

Because courses like this allow for a scaffolding of skills development (one skill building upon the pervious skill), managers develop a more thorough understanding of these leadership skills.  There are numerous studies showing the effectiveness of management training. For example:

In a 2020 study, researchers discovered that in comparison to the least trained business owners in a similar industry, those who finished formal training initiatives and continuing education claimed that their businesses enhanced cash flow, increased worker productivity, reduced employee turnover rate, and increased employee satisfaction and retention. (Panagiotakopoulos, 2020)

In a 2019 study, research discovered that training has a considerable and statistically meaningful impact on corporate performance. (Higuchi et al., 2019)

A 2017 study found that employee coaching is an excellent tool for leadership training and development, and it's more effective than some other strategies studied in terms of long-term and observable managerial behavioral change. (Rekalde et al., 2017)

In 2015, person, team, and project results revealed high satisfaction and utility evaluations, enhanced self-efficacy in project-specific work tasks and collaborations, greater goal clarification and cooperation, and a substantial influence on project manager and project functional outcomes. (Chiocchio et al., 2015)

Key Benefits of Management Training

When leaders (including managers and executives) have successfully completed a management training program, they should find that employees are more productive, engaged, inspired, and change-ready.

In both the practitioner and academic literature, management training programs deliver significant benefits, on metrics including worker productivity, employee turnover rate, employee satisfaction, corporate performance, managerial behavioral change, project-specific work tasks and collaborations, goal clarification and cooperation, project functional outcomes, and many more.

Most necessary management skills

Any management development or leadership development program should focus heavily on solving the biggest frustrations and skills deficits facing today's managers. In one recent study, Leadership IQ discovered that these were some of the areas in which management skills were most lacking:

Only 31% Of Leaders Are Highly Proficient At Managing Difficult Personalities 

If there's one thing we know for sure about stressful times, it's that difficult personalities will become even more difficult. When narcissists or blamers are inundated with life stress, they're virtually guaranteed to evidence even more narcissism and blaming. Unfortunately, most managers just haven't received the tools and scripts to handle difficult personalities effectively. 

Only 8% of leaders rate their skills for managing difficult personalities as expert, while an additional 23% rate themselves advanced. While many leadership development curricula teach giving feedback, they generally presume that the recipient of the feedback is reasonable and that one time through the script will be sufficient. But with blamers and negative personalities, for example, that's just not the case. In fact, the more difficult the personality and the more tense the situation, the more times someone needs to hear a message before it fully registers. At a minimum, managers must be taught how to coolly and methodically repeat themselves two or three times. It sounds simple, but in the heat of a tough conversation, maintaining the calmness necessary to deliver a message multiple times without emotion requires careful scripting.

Only 26% Of Leaders Have Mastered Developing Middle Performers Into High Performers

When asked why middle performers aren't high performers, far too many leaders reply, "They just don't have the talent." If we were coaching a basketball team, that retort might be a bit closer to true (as the old saying goes, "you can't coach tall"). But what separates middle and high performers in the typical workplace? Is it that one has a 120 IQ and the other scores 180? Is it that one has no patents and the other dozens? Speaking one language versus speaking seven? With rare and notable exceptions, those are not the differentiators. 

Often the gap between middle and high performers comes from attention to detail, optimism, work ethic, teamwork, helpfulness, and a host of other attitudes that are conscious choices rather than innate talents. The challenge for a manager is that turning a middle into a high performer is less about training them on specific skills and more about uncovering the motivational hurdles that are blocking their path forward. In other words, it's less about force-feeding employees training and more about asking deep questions. Currently, only 5% of leaders rate their skills for developing middle performers as expert, while an additional 21% rate themselves advanced. So this is clearly an area where managers could use a new set of skills and tools.

Only 40% Of Leaders Are Well-Versed In Overcoming Resistance To Change

If there's one constant over the past century of business, it's the need for change and people's subsequent resistance. It's always been tough to overcome resistance to change, no matter how senior the manager. 

In the study Why CEOs Get Fired, for example, mismanaging change was the top reason why chief executives lost their jobs. But notwithstanding the enduring nature of this challenge, this year, the need for overcoming change resistance might be more acute than in the past several decades. With the pandemic, remote and hybrid working, and a plethora of urgent and emerging paradigm shifts, a manager has to guide their employees through change quickly. Interestingly, while many leaders think leading change is about explaining lofty future visions, a study called Resistance To Change discovered that only 15% of employees always understand the rationale behind their leaders' strategy. And that is a bigger factor in determining the success of change than visions of the future.

Finding the right training program

Finding the right professional development program requires leaders and organizations to candidly assess their skills needs. Below are three sample curricula (delivered as online training) for different levels of managers, leaders and executives. These programs can be attended by an individual manager or delivered as large-scale corporate training programs.

Example #1: A management training program for middle managers

In this 6-Week Certificate Program called The Science and Practices of Managing People, you're going to learn the science and hyper-practical skills to deliver corrective feedback, manage narcissists & negative personalities, retain & inspire high performers, maximize middle performers, resolve conflict and lead teams!

WEEK 1. THE SCIENCE OF GIVING CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK
A Leadership IQ study found that 81% of leaders avoid giving tough feedback because they're afraid the recipient will respond badly (with anger, denial, blame or excuses). Fact-based conversations allow you to speak candidly without making people angry so you can turn tough conversations into coaching conversations that result in positive behavioral change. We'll show you how to strip feedback messages of any emotional baggage and stick to the facts so defenses stay low and employees can make the "corrective leap" you want.

WEEK 2. THE SCIENCE OF MANAGING DIFFICULT PERSONALITIES
Not every person in your organization is going to be nice, pleasant and easy-going. But direct confrontation makes negative personalities even more difficult to manage and work with. We've identified the Big Five difficult personalities that drive the most conflict in organizations (Negative, Drama Queens and Kings, Narcissists, Blamers and Overly Sensitive) and we'll share specific scripts and techniques for understanding and managing these difficult personalities.

WEEK 3. THE SCIENCE OF RESOLVING CONFLICT
Conflict is so touchy-we pretend it's not there, yet we suffer its negative effects every day. Whether a conflict is between you and another person, or you're mediating conflict between others, we'll show you how to de-escalate conflict by focusing on facts. You'll learn the latest research on conflict and get the specific psychological scripts and tools you need to fundamentally resolve conflict (and all of its tricky applications).

WEEK 4. THE SCIENCE OF KEEPING HIGH PERFORMERS EXCITED AND ENGAGED
In 42% of companies, high performers are less engaged than low performers. Understanding and addressing the deep issues that make high performers tick helps motivate, engage and most importantly, retain these valuable employees. Based on Leadership IQ's groundbreaking study that was featured in the Wall Street Journal, New York Times, Forbes, Fast Company, HR Executive and Harvard Business Review, we'll show you how to tap into the psychological motivators and demotivators of your top talent along with other practical tips to make your high performers more excited and engaged.

WEEK 5. THE SCIENCE OF MAXIMIZING MIDDLE PERFORMERS
About 80% of middle performers have tremendous untapped potential but are blocked from maximizing their full potential due to mistakes in how they're managed. We'll show you how to diagnose the blocks and you'll learn the specific steps you need to take to coach middle performers into achieving superstar-level performance.

WEEK 6. THE SCIENCE OF LEADING TEAMS
Teams are the foundation of every organization, but right now, 91% of teams are not fulfilling their full potential. We'll show you how to connect and align teams through shared purpose and orientation. You'll learn techniques for streamlining meetings so they become value-added forums for making better, smarter decisions, how to address interpersonal team dynamics and methods for creating definable objectives and clear agendas so people show up to meetings focused, engaged and prepared (and stay accountable after meetings end).

Example #2: A management training program focused on coaching leadership

The old command-and-control management approach is officially over. In this era, only leaders who can coach their employees will advance their careers. Because every company explicitly wants leaders who can coach employees!

WEEK 1: THE SCIENCE OF GREAT COACHING
Managing has its place, especially when there's a crisis, but it's coaching that instills inspiration and confidence in people and challenges them to grow, develop and unleash their full potential. Coaching is intrinsic; it examines psychological considerations: Why do you want to do certain things? Where do you see yourself going? What is it that's driving you right now? that encourage employees to develop emotional connections to their work so they want to be high performers. We'll work with you on developing the five big coaching competencies of Mindset, Goal-Setting, Framing, Listening and Questioning.

WEEK 2: THE SCIENCE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
Every great coaching leader has mastered emotional intelligence. Emotional Intelligence is more predictive of leadership success than raw brains or years of experience. People follow leaders with high Emotional Intelligence, and quickly leave leaders with low Emotional Intelligence. And a lack of Emotional Intelligence is one of the top reasons why new hires fail. Learn how to develop self-awareness, to read other people, and develop emotional management skills.

WEEK 3: THE SCIENCE OF INFLUENCE AND COMMUNICATION
 Coaching is based on being a great communicator and highly influential. The cardinal rule of influence is the more you understand others, the more they'll understand you. But not everybody likes to give and get information in the same way. We'll show you how to diagnose the levels of emotional connection and linearity people want in a given situation so you can adjust your communication style accordingly. You'll further strengthen your influencer abilities as you learn about the 7 Driving Needs that motivate people in workplace and start to put into practice techniques for developing informational and expert power.

WEEK 4: THE SCIENCE OF HARD GOALS
 Great coaching REQUIRES setting robust goals! Yet most leaders fail to set goals that are gutsy and challenging enough to result in something great. HARD Goals (Heartfelt, Animated, Required and Difficult) "amp up" regular goals and push us past road blocks like achievable and realistic (found in SMART goals). We'll draw from the research behind the bestseller HARD Goals to show you how to set meaningful goals for yourself and others that result in great achievements.

WEEK 5: THE SCIENCE OF INCREASING ACCOUNTABILITY
 Great coaching creates great accountability. Accountable employees take ownership, they're passionate, driven, collaborative, open, and they make absolutely no excuses. Leadership IQ has studied hundreds of organizations that have accountability hardwired into their culture and we've identified the best practices that drive their success. We'll share scripts and techniques for leading employees out of the emotional and reactive stages of denial, blame, excuses and anxiety so they become more logical, independent, self-sufficient and accountable.

WEEK 6: THE SCIENCE OF LEADING CHANGE
Coaching is fundamentally about creating change. But change isn't always easy: a Harvard Business School study found that 70% of change efforts fail and a Leadership IQ study found that mismanaging change is the number one reason why executives lose their jobs. Do we need any more reasons to master this critical skill? We'll show you how to hardwire change into your employees and organization by creating the urgency and direction people need to successfully make the transition from where they are now to where you want them to go.

Example #3: A management training program for senior leaders

Executives need to make smarter & faster decisions, create a vision that inspires and aligns, build accountability across the culture, communicate with presence & charisma, leverage power responsibly, and adapt their style to a wide range of situations.

WEEK #1: HOW TO MAKE SMARTER & FASTER STRATEGIC DECISIONS
 Making smart decisions is one of the most important executive functions, but it's also one of the riskiest. History is littered with executives who failed because they made terrible decisions (whether on product management, project management, operations, business administration, personnel, etc.). And many bad decisions come from the biases and fallacies of the irrational human brain. So this module gives you a toolkit of advanced techniques & critical thinking skills to clearly and decisively make smarter and more accurate strategic decisions. You won't get blindsided by bad decisions after you complete this module!

WEEK #2: BUILDING A HIGH ACCOUNTABILITY CULTURE
Do your employees act like owners or renters? Are they fully accountable, passionately driving huge results, without ever making excuses? Or, are some of your employees acting like renters? They may do their job okay, but you'll probably hear some excuses or finger-pointing, and their passion will be lacking. Great executives have hardwired accountability into their culture; their employees take ownership, are passionate, driven, and collaborative. After studying thousands of these executives, we've identified the best practices that drive their success and their high levels of accountability.

WEEK #3: CREATE AN INSPIRING STRATEGIC VISION
Only 15% of employees clearly understand the rationale behind their leaders' vision & strategy! And only 29% say their leader's vision for the future is always aligned with the organization's. To be visionary, you need to get everyone aiming in the right direction, working in lock-step, and acting with passion. But if you start offering tired clichés and hollow visions, employees will roll their eyes, tune out and think it's hypocritical nonsense. In this module, you'll move beyond fuzzy and poorly defined visions and learn to inspirationally sell a vision using the latest science and real-life examples.

WEEK #4: HOW SMART EXECUTIVES GAIN & LEVERAGE POWER
Whether you're enlisting support from employees, executives in other divisions, board members, unions, etc., this module will help you understand how best to attract supporters to your cause and leverage your undiscovered power to motivate them to action. You'll learn the 7 sources of power and which ones work for executives in today's modern organizations. You'll also learn how to pinpoint your hidden sources of executive power and leverage them for greater effectiveness.

WEEK #5: THE SCIENCE OF INCREASING YOUR EXECUTIVE PRESENCE & CHARISMA
Great executives have lots of presence and charisma, but most of them were not born that way! In fact, there are specific science-based techniques that will dramatically increase your ability to command attention, project presence and exude charisma. If you're willing to change a few specific behaviors, you will immediately see a difference in how others treat you (whether you're in leadership, customer service, sales or more). Even if you're a natural introvert and lack the "gift of gab" you can experience dramatic increases, whether you're a senior manager or junior supervisor).

WEEK #6: USING THE BEST EXECUTIVE LEADERSHIP STYLE TO FIT YOUR UNIQUE SITUATION
Too many executives fail because they choose the wrong executive style for their culture, employees, and goals! (Even famous CEOs have been fired for choosing the wrong leadership style). Some executive leadership styles are more effective for retaining employees, while other styles are more effective when a company needs bigger bottom-line results. Some executive styles work better when employees are comfortable taking some risks, while others are more suited to alleviating employee burnout. But picking the wrong style can lead to organizational and career disaster.

What are online management training courses?

Online management training courses are simply educational offerings delivered online, whether in recorded video or live streaming (through Zoom, GoToWebinar, WebEx, etc.). Unlike traditional leadership development programs which typically last several days with 5-8 hours of training per day, online management training courses tend to be shorter, usually around 1-2 hours. If the management course covers multiple topics, it will usually be spread out over longer durations. For example, the 6-week online management training courses listed above deliver approximately 1-2 hours of training content per week for a duration of 6 weeks.

Common topics of managerial training programs

To address the full range of management issues, managerial training programs will generally cover topics ranging from performance appraisals to conflict resolution to hiring to employee motivation, and much more. The following are the most popular management training courses from Leadership IQ:

  • Can't We All Just Get Along? [Conflict Resolution]
  • Do More Coaching and Less Managing [Employee Performance]
  • Enhancing Your Emotional Intelligence [Emotional Intelligence]
  • Getting More Influence Without Authority [Communication Skills]
  • Giving Tough Feedback Without Making People Angry [Performance Management]
  • Hiring for Attitude [Hiring]
  • How to Build Support for Your Change Efforts [Change Management]
  • How to Inspire and Retain Your High Performers [Employee Engagement]
  • How to Speak So Everyone Listens [Communication Skills]
  • How to Take, and Learn From, Tough Criticism [Employee Training]
  • Leading a Team Filled With Strong Personalities [Team Member Development]
  • Managing Narcissists, Blamers, Dramatics and More [Effective Leader]
  • Reducing Employee Burnout [Employee Engagement]
  • Secrets for New Managers [Emerging Leaders]
  • Stop Being Busy, Start Being Productive [Time Management]
  • Taking the Pain Out of Performance Reviews [Performance Management]
  • The Science of Managing Remote/Hybrid Employees [Remote Working]
  • The Secrets of Killer Presentations [Employee Training]

Manager in training

Most organizations don't spend nearly enough time and effort on developing their leaders, especially the next generation of leaders. Ironically, making huge strides in deepening the quality and quantity of future leaders doesn't require monumental investments; it just takes a bit of discipline and a few hours a week.

Start with what I call a "Manager for a Day Program." As the name suggests, each leader in the company will choose up to five of their best employees, with an emphasis on those people who've evidenced leadership potential or who've expressed an interest in a management career.

Then the leader will tell each of those folks something like, "On one day a week, I am going to have you work with me. You're going to shadow me and start to take over some of these management activities and learn how to do things that I might otherwise just do myself."

You shouldn't overthink this. In essence, leaders will give Monday to Pat, Tuesday to Chris, Wednesday to Jamie, and so on. Just do your best to match up people with a day of the week depending on the leader's schedule and how they typically schedule their time. If the leader does the bulk of their financial work on Mondays and they've got an employee who could benefit from those skills, give that person Monday.

What about the people who weren't selected for this program? First, once you've developed your plan, it is a good idea to share with the rest of your employees what will be happening. This program won't last forever; we typically see an employee participate as a Manager for a Day for somewhere between six and 12 months. So there will be another cohort of people chosen for the next round, and that means opportunities for everyone not part of the first round. 

Second, if you've chosen your participants well, you will have selected people who think management is great and avoided the folks who think a management job sounds like a nightmare. Not only will this program help you deepen your leadership talent pool, it will also have immediate impacts on the engagement and inspiration of your best employees. 

This also greatly increases the amount of learning these people experience. As they work through their day of the week, they'll be greatly expanding their skills, learning new techniques, broadening their perspectives, and more. Not only does this prepare them for management down the road, but it will also dramatically impact their inspiration at work.  

This Manager For A Day Program isn't overly complicated, doesn't require massive budget approvals, and is quite easy to implement. However, it does require a willingness to get serious about deepening the pool of future leaders at your organization. For companies ready to develop their leaders, this is one of the fastest ways to get moving and see results.

Scientific Literature on Management training programs

Panagiotakopoulos (2020) determined if formal management training initiatives aid small businesses by examining the influence of management training upon firm performance in the diverse work environment. A qualitative method was used, in which interviews were conducted with small business managers and workers from 50 small businesses in the industrial and service sectors. Training in smaller firms has a beneficial influence on firm performance, according to the results. In comparison to the least trained business owners in a similar industry, those who finished formal training initiatives claimed that their businesses enhanced cash flow, increased worker productivity, reduced employee turnover rate, and increased employee satisfaction and retention. The findings of this study had significant implications for managers since they depicted a strong link between management training and the success of the firm, motivating staff to engage in their personal growth. The extant data on the influence of management training on business performance is primarily based on extensive quantitative research. Nevertheless, the current empirical research did not go into detail about how traditional managerial training might assist small businesses to enhance their overall performance. In the context of this, the current research adds to the body of knowledge in this field (Panagiotakopoulos, 2020).

Buil, Catalán, and Martínez (2019) mentioned that among the most powerful techniques for encouraging and involving individuals effectively in the learning process are business simulations. Identifying which elements contribute to players' internal drive is critical in this situation. People can sustain an inner drive in situations that enable the fulfillment of the fundamental psychological demands for competency, independence, and relatedness, according to the self-determination concept. Nevertheless, this hypothesis was never used to understand motivation when practicing business simulation-type games. To address this knowledge gap, this study argues that participants' innate motivation is influenced by their demands for competency, independence, and relatedness, which improves involvement. The influence of internal engagement and motivation on the acquisition of skill sets and reported learning was also investigated in this study. The results confirmed most of the expected associations based on a poll of 360 business undergraduates who utilized a business simulation (Buil et al., 2019).

The research done by Bianchi and Giorcelli (2019); using data from the training initiative, investigated the influence of managerial techniques on business performance. United States government established the training within industry (TWI) plan, a corporate training course designed to offer leadership training to enterprises included in war manufacturing. This study evaluated the program's causative impacts by utilizing quasi-random variability in the assignment of trainers to businesses using newly obtained longitudinal data on U.S. enterprises that registered to the program. This study discovered that getting any type of TWI training improved the performance of the company. The most impactful training was in the management of human resources, which was complimentary to certain other management methods. Furthermore, this study showed that the impacts of the program differ significantly based on whether senior or intermediate executives were trained (Bianchi & Giorcelli, 2019).

The research performed by Higuchi, Mhede, and Sonobe (2019) mentioned that although entrepreneurs contribute a significant part in industrial growth, developing nations' management competence appears to be restricted. The effects of management training, mentoring, or consulting initiatives have been investigated in a variety of randomized controlled experiments. The treatments had positive effects on managerial policies and knowledge, however, the effects on company performance (evaluated concerning sales volume, value contributed, and profit) were typically statistically negligible, according to this research. Experimental designs, comprising training material and the time passed before the follow-up assessment, might have been to blame for the inconsistent outcomes. The current study used a controlled assessment of management training in the Tanzanian population to test this theory, with 113 local producers as participants. It extended the assessment duration to 3 years, unlike several previous pieces of research, to analyze the course of training effects. It is an effective evaluation of training procedures that encompassed quality assurance and production control as well as entrepreneurship, advertising, and records management, unlike many previous studies. Adaptive attempts were undertaken by the treated businesses to choose good practices and adjust them to meet their company operations. The research discovered that training has a considerable and statistically meaningful impact on corporate performance (Higuchi et al., 2019).

The research performed by Carcello, Eulerich, Masli, and Wood (2018) posited that the influence of employing the internal audit department as a management training field on management's acceptance of internal auditing suggestions was investigated in this research. Although previous research demonstrates that utilizing internal audit procedures as a management training field might have a negative impact on financial reporting, independent audit charges, and internal audit effectiveness, numerous internal audit departments do so. Researchers investigated how this strategy affects another key stakeholder i.e. top management. The research found that executives believe top leadership is more likely to adopt suggestions from management training field auditors as compared to the non-management training auditors, derived from the findings of a study of 355 executives. Researchers also discovered that one of the main reasons why management trust management training field suggestions more than non-management training field proposals is that internal auditors are often seen as having better innate talent, which would be a major factor in management' reliance judgments. Taken collectively, the findings give the first verifiable evidence that employing the internal auditor as management training field has favorable outcomes (Carcello et al., 2018).

Research conducted by Hoos, Messier Jr, Smith, and Tandy (2018) with 79 experienced internal auditing members looked at 2 aspects that might influence audit committees' rationality i.e. whether the auditors' unit is utilized as a managerial training site, or whether internal audit informs management or committee. Participants worked through a scenario in which the administration and the audit committee had opposing viewpoints on large business investment opportunities. Participants assessed pertinent company concerns and gave a total investment suggestion. Three key findings emerged from the study. First, a relationship was seen between the management training field and the reporting stream. Audit committees' evaluations match with the company's preferences whenever the audit team reported to top management rather than the internal auditors when the audit unit was utilized like a management training field. Secondly, only when internal auditor serves as a management training base, audit committees make more favorable investment proposals, i.e., suggestions that are in line with the company's inclinations. Finally, internal auditors surprisingly gave the auditing committee greater positive reviews than management (Hoos et al., 2018).

The focus of the research done by Rekalde, Landeta, Albizu, and Fernandez-Ferrin (2017) was to give an examination of the effects of using executive mentoring as a management competence training and growth approach, as well as a contrast to other commonly used development and training techniques. A two-sample method was utilized. Data was gathered from a sample size of 100 supervisors who took part in employee coaching procedures as mentors. The survey included the views of 236 human resource managers as practitioners and proponents of firm leadership development and training initiatives. The findings indicate that employee coaching is an excellent tool for leadership training and development. Additionally, it is highly effective than some other strategies studied in terms of long-term and observable managerial behavioral change, while also presenting benefits and downsides in its application. This study contributed information showing behaviors discussed in employee coaching procedures and tries to break new paths by making comparisons of this technique with other methods in concepts of their level of efficiency in achieving noticeable and enduring behavioral change (Rekalde et al., 2017).

Mutale et al. (2017) revealed the outcomes of evaluation research of the ZMLA initiative throughout the publication. It was mixed-method and cross-sectional research. The research focused on health care providers, participants, and course developers. To assess shifts in the workplace, insights from both ZMLA trainees and non-trainees had been solicited. Coaches and key informants interested in delivering ZMLA training provided stakeholder viewpoints. After each course, participants' levels of knowledge grew by 38 percent. When the mean self-rated values from 444 leadership and management survey results were compared to ZMLA training, the percentage of participants who felt appropriately equipped to perform leadership and management increased significantly. The majority of participants saw advances in the workplace, particularly in addressing human resource management issues. Morality and responsibility showed the slightest improvement. Qualitative data revealed changes in the meeting environment as well as a clearer understanding of the value of discussions. Workplaces in which the general manager had undergone ZMLA training appeared to have a better common goal, cooperation, and collaboration. In low-income contexts, management and leadership training would be a critical component of health system improvement. With minimum interruption to healthcare, the ZMLA approach was shown to be accepted and successful in enhancing skills and knowledge for health system management (Mutale et al., 2017).

The work done by Chang and Busser (2017) mentioned that mentorship is an essential human resources training course, although it is rarely mentioned in the research on the hospitality industry as an internal advertising strategy. The impact of mentoring on staff promotional attitudes was experimentally investigated in the study, which used a structured mentorship program at a leading hotel firm. The article's theoretical framework was given by employees' psychological contract concepts. Mentor roles, including career advancement and psychological support, were found to be precursors of staff promotional attitudes. Alongside that, psychological contract violation and emotional commitment to the organization were shown to be the mediator between mentorship functions and advertising attitude, particularly affective firm commitment demonstrating a complete mediation impact. These findings have managerial and theoretical ramifications, as well as avenues for further research (Chang & Busser, 2017).

The research by Nakamura et al. (2016) mentioned that organizational justice seemed to have an impact on the employees' well-being. This study tested if shorter management training improves organizational justice for subordinates in a controlled study. Executives and employees in the corporate industrial sector participated in the research. Random sampling at the operational level resulted in a treatment group and a comparison group. Supervisors in the treatment group were given a 90-minute training course to look at their behavior and attitudes to improve organizational justice. Before and three months afterward intervention, employees answered to the self-administered organizational justice survey assessments on interpersonal, procedural, and informational justice. The lower-rated section of the relational justice subtest demonstrated substantial improvement in subgroups compared to the base from each of the key justice sub-dimensions and overall scores. The results of this paper imply that shorter management training for organizational justice of supervisors enhances a poor score in interpersonal justice among subordinates considerably. To create a particular intervention strategy to promote organizational justice, more research is needed (Nakamura et al., 2016).

The study done by Chiocchio, Rabbat, and Lebel (2015) examined project management training programs implemented among healthcare teams. Project management and teamwork in the context of projects are rarely discussed by healthcare workers, even though the proposed project is critical for the development of healthcare institutions. 14 interdisciplinary healthcare project groups received 3 half-day training seminars incorporating project management and teamwork. Over thirty-six weeks, multivariate measurements were gathered. Person, team, and project results revealed high satisfaction and utility evaluations, enhanced self-efficacy in project-specific work tasks and collaborations, greater goal clarification and cooperation, and a substantial influence on project functional outcomes. The research established preliminary benchmarks for the applicability of managing projects and interpersonal cooperation training for healthcare working groups (Chiocchio et al., 2015).

The research done by Ramazani and Jergeas (2015) examined the usefulness of investing in project management education and training initiatives. The study mentioned that there seems to be a disconnection between what teaching staff is providing and what is required to manage initiatives in today's dynamic workplace. By examining project management growth from the viewpoint of operational project managers, the study examined how training and education facilities can train and equip excellent project management teams for the upcoming time. The authors provide the results of a qualitative analysis of project supervisors in the petroleum industry. The paper identified three major aspects that educational institutions must focus on when constructing and gearing up future project management teams i.e. creating critical reasoning for addressing complexity; creating softer specifications of project management, such as leadership and communication skills rather than just technical knowledge; and preparing managers to be involved in real-world projects. The authors suggested that training and education institutions need to do much more to properly equip project teams on their path to greatness (Ramazani & Jergeas, 2015).

References

Bianchi, N., & Giorcelli, M. (2019). Not all management training is created equal: Evidence from the Training Within Industry program. Available at SSRN.

Buil, I., Catalán, S., & Martínez, E. (2019). Encouraging intrinsic motivation in management training: The use of business simulation games. The International Journal of Management Education, 17(2), 162-171.

 Carcello, J. V., Eulerich, M., Masli, A., & Wood, D. A. (2018). The value to management of using the internal audit function as a management training ground. Accounting Horizons, 32(2), 121-140.

 Chang, W., & Busser, J. A. (2017). Hospitality employees promotional attitude: Findings from graduates of a twelve-month management training program. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 60, 48-57.

 Chiocchio, F., Rabbat, F., & Lebel, P. (2015). Multi-level efficacy evidence of a combined interprofessional collaboration and project management training program for healthcare project teams. Project Management Journal, 46(4), 20-34.

 Higuchi, Y., Mhede, E. P., & Sonobe, T. (2019). Short-and medium-run impacts of management training: An experiment in Tanzania. World Development, 114, 220-236.

 Hoos, F., Messier Jr, W. F., Smith, J. L., & Tandy, P. R. (2018). An experimental investigation of the interaction effect of management training ground and reporting lines on internal auditors' objectivity. International Journal of Auditing, 22(2), 150-163.

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